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Wim van Binsbergen

Part III

Chiefs Chiefs and the state in independent Zambia: Exploring the Zambian National Press

homepage | Chief and state in Zambia overview page | Part I | Part II |

van Binsbergen W. M. J., 1987, ‘Chiefs and the State in Independent Zambia : exploring the Zambian National Press? in J. Griffiths et E. A. B. van Rouveroy van Nieuwaal (eds), Journal of Legal Pluralism, special issue on chieftainship in Africa, n?25-26, pp. 139-201.


Administration for rural development (ARD) research project

1977?Organisation for participation in rural development in Zambia, Lusaka/Amsterdam: National Institute for Public Administration/Free University.

Aihe, D.O.

1972    ?‘The administration of the judiciary in Zambia, 1889-1969? Nigerian Law Journal, 6: 116-29.

Apthorpe, R.J. (ed.)

1959    ? From tribal rule to modern government, Thirteenth Conference Proceedings, Lusaka: Rhodes-Livingstone Institute.

1960    ?‘Mythical African political structures, Northern Rhodesia? in: A. Dubb, (ed.), Myth in modern Africa, Lusaka: Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Fourteenth Conference Proceedings, pp. 18-37.

Barnes, J.A.

1954    ?Politics in a changing society, Oxford University Press.

Barotseland, the, Agreement

1964    ?The Barotseland Agreement, 1964, Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations by Command of Her Majesty, May 1964, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Bates, R.

1973    ?Ethnicity in contemporary Africa, New York: Syracuse University, East African Studies, no. xiv.

Bayart, J.-F.

1979    ? L’Etat au Cameroun, Paris: Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques.

Beinart, W.

1985?‘Chieftaincy and the concept of articulation: South Africa ca. 1900-1950? in: B. Jewsiewicki with J. Letourneau (eds), Modes of Production: The challenge of Africa, Ste-Foy (Can.): Safi, pp. 91-98.

Bond, G.C.

1975    ?‘New coalitions and traditional chieftainship in Northern Zambia: The politics of local government in Uyombe? Africa, 45, 4: 348-62.

Brelsford, W.V.

1935    ? ‘History and customs of the Basala? Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 65: 205-15.

1965    ?The tribes of Zambia, Lusaka: Government Printer.

Caplan, G.

1970    ?The elites of Barotseland 1878-1969, London: Hurst.

Chanock, M.

1985    ?Law, custom and social order: The colonial experience in Malawi and Zambia, Cambridge University Press.

Chiwale, J.C.

1962    ?Royal praises and praisenames of the Lunda Kazembe of Northern Rhodesia: The meaning and historical background, Lusaka: Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Rhodes-Livingstone Communica-tion no. 25.

Coillard, F.

1971    ?On the threshold of Central Africa, London: Cass, 3rd edition.

Colson, E.

1962    ?The Plateau Tonga, Manchester, Manchester University Press.

1970    ?‘The assimilation of aliens among the Zambian Tonga? in R. Cohen & J. Middleton (eds), From Tribe to Nation in Africa, Scranton: Chandler, pp. 35-54.

1976    ?‘From chief’s court to local court: The evolution of local courts in southern Zambia? in: H.J. Aronoff (ed.), Freedom and constraint: A memorial tribute to Max Gluckman, Assen: Van Gorcum, pp. 15-29.

Cunnison, I.

1959    ?The Luapula Peoples, Manchester University Press.

Doke, C.M.

1931    ?The Lambas of Northern Rhodesia, London: Harrap; 1970 reprint: Westport: Negro Universities Press.

Fagan, B.M.

1961    ?‘A collection of nineteenth century Soli ironwork from the Lusaka district of Northern Rhodesia? Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 91, 2:

Fincham, R., & J. Markakis (eds)

1980    ?The evolving structure of Zambian society, Edinburgh: Centre of African Studies.

Gann, L.H.

1958    ? The birth of a plural society, 1894-1914, Manchester University Press.

1964    ?A history of Northern Rhodesia, London: Chatto & Windus.

Garvey, B.

1977    ?‘Bemba chiefs and catholic missions, 1898-1935? Journal of African History, 18, 3: 411-26.

Gertzel, C. (ed.)

1984    ?The dynamics of the one-party state in Zambia, Manchester University Press.

Gluckman, M.

1943? Organisation of the Barotse native authorities, With a plan for reforming them, Lusaka: Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Rhodes-Livingstone Communication no. 1.

1951    ? ‘The Lozi of Barotseland, N.W. Rhodesia? in: E. Colson & M. Gluckman (eds.) Seven tribes of British Central Africa, London: Oxford University Press for Rhodes-Livingstone Institute.

1967    ? The judicial process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia, 2nd edition, Manchester University Press for Rhodes-Livingstone Institute.

1968    ?Essays on Lozi land and royal property, Manchester University Press, Rhodes-Livingstone Papers no. 10, reprint of the 1953 edition.

Gregor, G.

1967    ?‘New role for the African chiefs? Horizon, 9, 7: 28-31.

Hoover, E.L., J.C. Piper & F.O. Spalding

1970    ?‘A. The evolution of the Zambian courts system? Zambia Law Journal, 2, 1-2: 4-25.

Kangamba, L.K.

1978a  ? ‘Separation of Zambia’s chiefs and people, especially Luchazi in western Zambia? Review of Ethnology, 5, 9-10: 79.

1978b  ?‘Luchazi history: supplementary notes? Review of Ethnology, 5, 9-10: 76-78.

Kapteyn, R.C.E., & Emery, C.R.

1972    ?First Report: District Administration in Zambia: Research Project Administration for Development, Lusaka: National Institute of Public Administration.

Kasevula, R.C., K. Luka & B.J. Chipango

1976    ?‘The custom of Luchazi chieftainship? Review of Ethnology, 4: 18-19.

Kashoki, M.E.

1978    ?‘The language situation in Zambia? in: S. Ohannessian & M.E. Kashoki (eds), Language in Zambia, London: International African Institute, pp. 9-46.

Kasoma, F.P.

1986    ? The press in Zambia: The development, role and control of national newspapers in Zambia 1906-1983, Lusaka: Multimedia publications.

Lungu, G.F.

1986    ? ‘The church, labour and the press in Zambia: The role of critical observers in a one-party state? African Affairs, 85, no. 340: 385-410.

McCulloch, M.

1951    ?The Southern Lunda and related peoples, London: Oxford University Press for International Africa Institute, Ethnographic Atlas of Africa.

Molteno, R.

1974    ?‘Cleavage and conflict in Zambian politics: A study in sectionalism? in: Tordoff, (1974): 62-106.

Mulford, D.C.

1967    ?Zambia: The Politics of Independence, London: Oxford University Press.

Mutumba Mainga

1973    ?Bulozi under the Luyana kings, London: Longman.

Namushi, N., & M.L. Mwewa (eds)

1972?Muhammedan early days in the Copperbelt of Northern Rhodesia by J.E. Stephenson (Chirupula), Lusaka: National Archives of Zambia, Occassional [sic] Paper no. 1.

Niddrie, D.

1954    ?‘The road to work: A survey of the influence of transport on migrant labour in Central Africa? Rhodes-Livingstone Journal 15.

Northern Rhodesia

1943    ?A general list of chiefs, An Alphabetical and Tabulated List of Chiefs as at October 1943, Lusaka: Government Printer.

O’Brien, D.

1983    ?‘Chiefs of rain - chiefs of ruling: A reinterpretation of precolonial Tonga (Zambia) social and political structure? Africa, 53, 4: 23-42.

Ollawa, P.E.

1979?Participatory democracy in Zambia: The political economy of national development, Ilfracombe: Stockwell.

Papstein, R.J.

1978    ? ‘The Upper Zambezi: A history of the Luvale people 1000-1900? Ph D thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.

1985    ?‘The political economy of tribalism in Northwestern Zambia 1830-1964? Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 98: 393-401.

Pettman, J.

1974    ?Zambia: Security and conflict, Lewes: Friedmann.

Philpott, R.

1945    ?‘The Mulobezi-Mongu labour route? Rhodes-Livingstone Journal, 3:

Prins, G.

1978    ? ‘Self defence against invented tradition: An example from Zambia? in: B. Bernardi, C. Poni & A. Triulzi, (eds), Fonti Orali/Oral Sources/Sources orales, Milano: Franco Angeli, pp. 311-22.

1980    ?The hidden hippopotamus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ranger, T.O.

1968? ‘Nationality and nationalism: The case of Barotseland? Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 4, 2: 227-46.

1985    ?‘Religious studies and political economy: The Mwari cult and the peasant experience in Southern Rhodesia? in: W.M.J. van Binsbergen & J.M. Schoffeleers (eds), Theoretical explorations in African Religion, London etc.: Kegan Paul International.

Republic of Zambia

1965?Constitution of Zambia: Appendix 3 to the Laws, 1965 Edition, Lusaka: Government Printer.

1966    ?A general list of chiefs, Lusaka: Government Printer.

1972    ?Report of the National Commission on the Establishment of a One-Party Participatory Democracy in Zambia, Lusaka: Government Printer.

1973    ?A general list of chiefs, Lusaka: Government Printer.

Richards, A.I.

1935    ?‘Tribal government in transition: the Babemba of Northern Rhodesia? Journal of the Royal African Society, 34, supplement.

Roberts, A.D.

1973    ?A history of the Bemba, London: Longman.

Rubin, N., & Tarantino, M.P.

1980    ?‘Zambia? in: Blaustein, A.P., & Flantz, G.H. (eds), Constitutions of the countries of the world, Dobbs Ferry (NY): Oceana Publications.

Rubin, N., M.P. Tarantino, & P.E. Larkin

1985    ?‘Zambia? in: Blaustein, A.P., & Flantz, G.H. (eds), Constitutions of the countries of the world, Dobbs Ferry (NY): Oceana Publications.

Schoffeleers, J.M. (ed.)

1979    ?Guardians of the land, Gwelo: Mambo Press.

Shimwaayi Muntemba, M.

1970    ?‘The political and ritual sovereignty among the Mukuni Leya of Zambia? Zambia Museum Journal, 1: 28-39.

Singer, N.J.

1985    ?‘The subtlety of legal change: A lesson from Northern Zambia? in: A.Allott & G.R. Woodman (eds), People’s law and state law: The Bellagio papers, Dordrecht: Foris, pp. 109-121.

Spalding, F.O.

1970    ?‘B. The legacy of colonial ideas? Zambia Law Journal, 2, 1-2: 25-119.

Stokes, E.

1966?‘Barotseland: Survival of an African state? in: E. Stokes and R. Brown (eds.), The Zambesian Past, Manchester University Press for Institute for Social Research, pp. 261-301.

Stone, J.C.

1979    ?A Guide to the Administrative Boundaries of Northern Rhodesia, Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen Department of Geography.

Tordoff, W. (ed.)

1974    ?Politics in Zambia, Manchester University Press.

1980?Administration in Zambia, Manchester University Press.

Touwen-van der Kooij, A.

(in press) ‘‘I’m suffering’’: A pilot study of the socio-economic position of female heads of household in a rural Copperbelt community, Leiden: African Studies Centre.

Turok, B. (ed.)

1979?Development in Zambia: A reader, London: Zed.

Turner, V.W.

1952    ? The Lozi peoples of North-West Rhodesia, London: Oxford University Press for International Africa Institute, Ethnographic Atlas of Africa.

van Binsbergen, W.M.J.

1981    ? Religious change in Zambia, London etc.: Kegan Paul International for African Studies Centre.

1985a  ? ‘From tribe to ethnicity in Western Zambia? in van Binsbergen & Geschiere (1985a): 181-234.

1985b  ? ‘Dynamics of the Tonga-Lozi frontier in the nineteenth and twentieth century? seminar paper, ‘Africa colloquium? Netherlands Association for African Studies, Leiden, November 1985.

1986    ? ‘The post-colonial state, “state penetration?and the Nkoya experience in Central Western Zambia? in: van Binsbergen et al. (b) 1986: 31-63.

in press?‘Introduction: Mythical and historical structure in Central Western Zambia as brought out by J.M. Shimunika's “Likota lya Bankoya”’, in W.M.J. van Binsbergen (ed.), J.M. Shimunika's Likota lya Bankoya/The history of the Nkoya, Leiden; African Studies Centre.

n.d.      ? ‘The Zambian House of Chiefs: Constitutional and political aspects? MS.

in prep. Tears of Rain: The Nkoya Experience, 1800-1978.

van Binsbergen, W.M.J., & P.L. Geschiere

1985a  ? (eds), Old Modes of Production and Capitalist Encroachment, London/Boston: Kegan Paul International for African Studies Centre, pp. 181-234.

1985b  ?‘Marxist theory and anthropological practice: The application of French Marxist anthropology in field-work? in: van Binsbergen & Geschiere (1985a): 235-89.

van Binsbergen, W.M.J., F. Reyntjens & G.S.C.M. Hesseling

1986a  ? ‘Aspects of modern state penetration in Africa? in: van Binsbergen et al. (b): 369-400.

1986b  ? (eds) State and local community in Africa, Brussels: Cahiers du CEDAF.

van Donge, J.K.

1985?‘Understanding rural Zambia today: The relevance of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute? Africa, 55,1: 60-76.

Watson, W.

1958    ?Tribal cohesion in a money economy: A study of the Mambwe people, Manchester University Press.

Werbner, R.P.

1984    ?‘The Manchester School in South-Central Africa? Annual Review of Anthropology, 13: 157-85.

Whiteley, W.

1951    ?The Bemba and Related Peoples of Northern Rhodesia, London: Oxford University Press for International Africa Institute, Ethnographic Atlas of Africa.

Yeta, M.

1956    ?‘The Kuomboka ceremony during Yeta iii's reign? Northern Rhodesia Journal, 4,6: 574-82.

Appendix: Titles, Sources and Dates of Newspaper Items in the 1972-1973 Corpus

ZDM: Zambia Daily Mail; TZ: Times of Zambia; STZ: Sunday Times of Zambia

the items were taken from a larger corpus not limited to references on chiefs; therefore numbering is not entirely consecutive

item paper date title
1. 1 TZ February 15, 1972 WE WANT TO GO HOME ?plead ‘deported? chiefs
1. 2 TZ February 9, 1972 Hold your fire! ministry advises grumbling chief Mukuni’s people
1. 4 ZDM February 7, 1972 Change the ceremonies
1. 5 TZ February 4, 1972 Chiefs pick their men
2. 1 TZ September 14, 1972 Lundwe chief
2. 2 ZDM September 6, 1972 Call for public execution of robbers
2. 3 TZ August 19, 1972 New chiefs named
2. 4 ZDM July 31, 1972 Mumbwa farmers show off their paces
2. 5 ZDM July 20, 1972 Plots hand-out to squatters angers chief
2. 6 TZ July 15, 1972 Deposed chief aims to regain throne
2. 7 ZDM July 10, 1972 Editor’s Uncle dies
2. 8 ZDM July 7, 1972 One man-one wife, says Ndola Council
2. 9 ZDM June 28, 1972 [untitled item, beginning: ‘Mr. David Chiwele...’]
2.10 ZDM June 19, 1972 [untitled item, beginning: ‘Chiefs [meeting] in Mwinilunga...’]
2.12 TZ June 9, 1972 Brothers argue over who should be chief
2.13 ZDM June 8, 1972 [untitled item, beginning: ‘The Minister for Western Province...’]
2.15 TZ May 19, 1972 Villagers turn away registration team
2.16 TZ May 19, 1972 Can our chiefs work with the nationalists? by Ben Kakoma
2.17 TZ May 7, 1972 Makasa proved doubters wrong
2.18 TZ March 27, 1972 UNIP SEMINAR SAYS IT LOUD
2.19 TZ March 6, 1972 Letter to the Editor [by] Princess Nakatindi
3. 1 ZDM December 5, 1972 [report on President Kaunda’s Leadership Code speech, Hindu Hall, Kabwe]
3. 2 ZDM January 11, 1973 [report on opening of the fifth session of the National Assembly]
3. 3 ZDM July 10, 1972 [report on political rally held at Kafue roundabout, Lusaka, 9 July 1972]
3. 4 ZDM December 4, 1972 One leader, one income ...and these men are the leaders
3. 5 ZDM January 26, 1973 Leaders get tip on that Code
3. 6 TZ January 18, 1973 ‘Violent changes?threat to society: Law chiefs warned by Chuula
3. 7 ZDM January 18, 1973 Top leaders told to stop practising tribalism
3. 8 TZ December 16, 1972 Prof.V. Subramaniam: Varsity Corner: Consider the whole before you decide
3. 9 ZDM December 13, 1972 ‘Tour chiefs?areas?o:p>
3.10 TZ December 13, 1972 Officials told to go into villages
3.11 ZDM December 7, 1972 THE SPIRIT OF THE 2ND REPUBLIC
3.12 TZ December 5, 1972 DG denies supporting wrong man for chief
3.13 TZ December 4, 1972 From page one: Tough leadership code
3.14 ZDM December 4, 1972 Leaders get new orders
3.15 TZ December 3, 1972 DG accused in chief row:
3.16 TZ December 2, 1972 Varsity Corner: G. Kalenga Simwinga: is it time our chiefs were abolished?
3.18 TZ November 13, 1972 8000 see new Chief Mwangala installed
3.20 TZ November 10, 1972 Milner affirms Govt. stand on chiefs
3.21 STZ October 29, 1972 Chiefs want respect
3.22 ZDM October 12, 1972 Bemba chiefs on aerial trip of waste land
3.23 ZDM October 11, 1972 Times got it all wrong, says Milner
3.23a TZ October 11, 1972 [Report on Mr. Milner’s statements, cf. 3.23]
3.24 TZ October 10, 1972 OPINION
3.25 ZDM October 9, 1972 Go back to the land, chiefs tell loafers.
4. 1 STZ November 12, 1972 ANGOLA; PART OF IT IS ZAMBIA’S ?The price of colonial rule was the loss of a big slice of the Lozi King’s traditional territory ?by Dr. Mutumba M. Bull
4. 2 TZ December 27, 1972 Senior induna installed as new Ngambela
4. 7 ZDM December 7, 1972 ‘We have before us a bill designed to bring us all into one nation??People have been crying for unity ?second reading speech of the constitutional amendment no. 5 bill, made by Vice-President Mainza Chona
4. 8 ZDM November 24, 1972 New road to Sesheke opened
4. 9 ZDM November 23, 1972 Nakatindi the bridge
4.10 TZ November 23, 1972 KK pays his last respects to Princess Nakatindi
4.11 ZDM November 22, 1972 NAKATINDI GOES
4.12 ZDM November 21, 1972 Princess Nakatindi dies in Lusaka
4.12 a ZDM November 21, 1972 Obituary [of Princess Nakatindi] by Robinson Makayi
4.13 TZ November 21, 1972 Princess Nakatindi is dead
4.14 ZDM October 26, 1972 Mutti steps into license row in Solwezi council
4.15 ZDM October 7, 1972 Litunga’s adviser resigns
4.16 TZ September 24, 1972 [report on President Kaunda’s trip to Mongu]
4.16 a ZDM September 24, 1972 [report on President Kaunda’s trip to Mongu]
4.16 b TZ September 25, 1972 [report on President Kaunda’s trip to Mongu]
4.16 c ZDM September 25, 1972 [report on President Kaunda’s trip to Mongu]
4.18 ZDM August 16, 1972 Nakatindi improves
4.22 TZ July 24, 1972 Kafue Hook bridge ready, says Chona
4.23 ZDM June 16, 1972 Lozis told to ignore circulars
4.24 STZ June 11, 1972 Hospital is way behind schedule
4.26 TZ May 3, 1972 Opinion
4.27 TZ April 27, 1972 LITUNGA IS NOT A ‘MR?o:p>
4.28 ZDM April 25, 1972 Chona warns petitioner against lies
4.29 ZDM April 22, 1972 BAN THESE PARTY CARD [sic], SAYS INDUNA
4.30 TZ April 22, 1972 Ban party cards, inquiry urged
4.31 TZ April 21, 1972 Chieftain [spells out? ?illegible] role of leader
4.32 TZ May 4, 1972 Refugees move on
5. 4 ZDM March 18, 1972 Ndola feud gets Monday deadline
5. 5 TZ March 23, 1972 Problem area
5. 6 TZ March 27, 1972 INTRUDERS WARNED OFF
5. 7 ZDM March 28, 1972 Keep police out of politics, chief warns commission
5. 8 TZ March 28, 1972 Scrap the Youth Brigade, says chief
5. 9 TZ March 30, 1972 ‘Lamba in class?plea
5.10 ZDM March 31, 1972 Go-ahead signal for squatter area
5.11 STZ April 1, 1972 ‘Lamba in class?plea supported
5.12 ZDM April 4, 1972 No ruling in Lamba row yet ?Nyirenda
5.13 ZDM April 17, 1972 Mine pumps out village water supply
5.16 TZ May 20, 1972 Zairean ‘invaders?persist
5.17 ZDM May 22, 1972 Give us border post, chief asks again
5.19 TZ June 3, 1972 ‘be on guard?o:p>
5.20 TZ June 12, 1972 Dirty bars will be closed, chief warns
5.21 TZ June 21, 1972 Lamba chief want P.O. at his palace
5.23 ZDM July 18, 1972 Protect us from aliens ?Chief
5.24 TZ July 26, 1972 I was not beaten, says angry chief
5.27 TZ October 26, 1972 Make prison life harder ?Chief [date approx.]
5.28 ZDM December 13, 1972 Chief Mushili makes appeal
6. 1 TZ January 29, 1973 COUNT TO TRACE MISSING MEN
6. 2 TZ January 4, 1973 Sticking with the old ways
6. 3 TZ December 12, 1972 Chiefs stand by old farming system
6. 4 ZDM December 20, 1972 [untitled item, beginning: The deputy chairman of the Natural Resources advisory board’]
6. 5 TZ October 27, 1972 MP comes up with a new suggestion to speed up rural progress
6. 6 TZ May 28, 1972 ZAM-TAN: how does it affect the local people ? A progress report
6. 7 TZ March 29, 1972 Feira’s fed up with name
6. 8 TZ June 17, 1972 Chief goes on farm tour of UK
6. 9 TZ June 13, 1972 Loafers ‘must be caught?o:p>
7. 1 ZDM December 1, 1972 Plea from the spirits
7. 2 TZ December 18, 1972 ‘Too many herbalists?o:p>
7. 3 ZDM January 9, 1973 Drummers to hail the new leap forward to unity.
7. 4 ZDM December 9, 1972 Men escape after clash
7. 5 ZDM December 7, 1972 The night it rained beer on the graves
7. 6 TZ December 7, 1972 FOR SALE: 1,000,000 BAGS OF BEST MAIZE
7. 7 ZDM December 18, 1972 [Letter to the editor]
7. 8 TZ November 28, 1972 Old bones bring rain!
7.10 TZ November 21, 1972 Wizard’s bones cause drought scare
7.11 ZDM November 29, 1972 Government gets rain plea
7.12 TZ October 25, 1972 A day to remember at State House
7.13 ZDM August 28, 1972 Chona at Chisungu
7.13 a TZ August 28, 1972 VIP visitor
7.14 TZ August 17, 1972 A CHIEF MOURNS
7.15 TZ August 16, 1972 A new mother is born to KK ?and Zambia
7.15 a ZDM August 16, 1972 [untitled item, beginning: ‘PRESIDENT Kaunda has thanked 74 mourners...?o:p>
7.16 TZ May 3, 1972 GRAVE GIANT BAFFLES LOZI MAGICIANS The great mushroom mystery
7.17 TZ April 24, 1972 ‘Muti?tree
7.18 TZ January 2, 1973 ‘Muti Mutanda?wins reprieve
7.19 ZDM January 21, 1972 Witches are after my people, says frightened chief
7.20 TZ February 12, 1972 [untitled item, beginning: ‘SENIOR Chief Chiwala is to ask Mpongwe Rural Council...’]


Table 1. The neo-traditional and modern political career of Princess Nakatindi, 1922-1972.

(sources: 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.12a, 4.13)


?neo-traditional career

                       modern career


Born in Lealui 2nd youngest daughter of Litunga Yeta III

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Educated at Tiger Kloof Institution in Cape Province, South Africa


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One of the founder members of the Girl Guides local association in Barotseland

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Member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church


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Served on the Mongu-Lealui district education authority


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Among the first to start welfare work in Barotseland


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First female personality to welcome UNIP to


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First woman to contest in the 1962 general

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Member of the UNIP Central Committee


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Director of the UNIP Women's Brigade


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Member for Nalikwanda constituency, National Legislative Assembly


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Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Labour Social Development

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Parliamentary Secretary to Minister of Mines and Co-operatives.


Chieftainess (Mulena Mukwae) of Sesheke

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Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Co-operatives, Youth and Social Development


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lost her Parliamentary seat to ANC in General Elections

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District Governor, Sesheke

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Member, House of Chiefs

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1972: died in Lusaka, survived by her husband and 11 children


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